The PACS-studies

Presentation of the research project on Physically Active Commuting in Greater Stockholm (PACS).

The PACS-studies are part of a multidisciplinary research project within the Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment at the Åstrand Laboratory of The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, in Stockholm, Sweden, see

The studies involve both walking and cycling behaviours in inner urban and suburban – rural areas.

The general aims of the PACS studies project are to illuminate:

  1. what characterizes existing behavioural patterns connected to physically active commuting to work in Greater Stockholm
  2. which are the route environmental variables that can affect the appraisals of stimulating or inhibiting route environments for cycling and walking, as well as of safety and unsafety of traffic, and its relation to environmental well-being
  3. what characterizes the physiological demands for metabolism and oxygen uptake
  4. which are the potential effects of these forms of physical activity on the physical and psychological health and well-being, and
  5. to what extent are existing behavioural patterns applicable within the population in Greater Stockholm under existing and enhanced circumstances.

Selected publications

Some of the publications can be found in full text:


Schantz, P. & Stigell, E. 2009. A criterion method for measuring route distance in physically active commuting. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41 (2), 472-478.

Stigell, E. & Schantz, P. 2010. Methods for Determining Route Distances in Active Commuting - their Validity and Reproducibility. Journal of Transport Geography, 19 (4): 563–574.

Stigell, E. 2011. Assessment of active commuting behaviour – walking and bicycling in Greater Stockholm Doctoral thesis. University of Örebro, Örebro.

Stigell, E. & Schantz, P. 2015. Active Commuting Behaviours in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2015, 12, (In Press)

Route environments

Wahlgren, L., Stigell, E. & Schantz, P. 2010. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES): Development and Evaluation. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 7:58

Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. 2011. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting. BMC Medical Research Methodology 11:6

Wahlgren, L. 2011. Studies on Bikeability in a Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Doctoral thesis. University of Örebro, Örebro.

Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. 2012. Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments. BMC Public Health 12:168

Schantz, P. 2012. Om färdvägsmiljöers betydelse för gång, cykling, hälsa och välbefinnande. Rapport 2012:157. Trafikverket: Borlänge (In Swedish).

Schantz, P. 2014. Physical activity behaviours and environmental well-being in a spatial context. In: Geography and Health – A Nordic Outlook. Chief eds. Schærström, A., Jørgensen, S.H. & Sivertun, Å. Swedish National Defence College: Stockholm; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU): Trondheim; Universität Bonn: Bonn

Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. 2014. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11 (8) 8276-8300.


Rosdahl, H., Gullstrand, L., Johansson, P., Salier-Eriksson, J. & Schantz, P. 2010. Evaluation of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system against the Douglas bag method. Eur J Appl Physiol. 109 (2):159-171

Salier Eriksson, J., Rosdahl, H. & Schantz, P. 2012. Validity of the Oxycon Mobile metabolic system under field measuring conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol 112 (1): 345-355


Schantz, P. 2015. Om gång och cykling, hälsa och hållbar utveckling. Rapport 2015:153, Borlänge: Trafikverket (In Swedish)

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